Safety and cyber-security of offshore hydrogen production from water electrolysis in remote offshore locations
Green hydrogen offers many advantages including environment-friendliness since it emits only water as a by-product without any carbon emission which helps decarbonize a wide range of hard-to-electrify sectors and industries as well as support the growth of renewables. Additionally, hydrogen has high energy density (efficiency) of 140 mj/kg, which is two times greater than regular solid fuels. It can be used as fuel, converted into other chemicals, exported, stored long-termly or converted back to power via fuel cell.
There are major challenges to large – scale green hydrogen production such as high capital and operating cost, need for either a very large fresh water supply or desalination of seawater for electrolysis, as well as minimal hydrogen production efficiency. Internet-of-things (IoT) solutions will be vital in enabling the transition to green hydrogen. However, Utilizing such industry 4.0 technologies results in safety and security challenges including complex opaque system, complex socio-technical system, human-machine interface challenges, cyber-physical attacks, unsecured remote configuration, vulnerability, lack of standards, resilience, and other technical hardware and software challenges.